The second parallel agreement is the North American Environmental Cooperation Agreement (NAAEC), which established the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) in 1994. The CEC is responsible for strengthening regional cooperation in the environmental field, reducing potential trade and environmental conflicts and promoting effective enforcement of environmental legislation. It also facilitates public cooperation and participation in efforts to promote conservation, protection and improvement of the North American environment. It consists of three main components: the Council (Minister of the Environment), the Joint Advisory Committee of Governments (JPAC) and the Secretariat, which is headquartered in Montreal. It has an annual budget of $9 million, with Canada, Mexico and the United States contributing $3 million per year and settled by consensus (non-majority). After Donald Trump`s presidential election, a number of trade experts said that exiting NAFTA, as Proposed by Trump, would have a number of unintended consequences for the United States, including limited access to the largest U.S. export markets, reduced economic growth and higher prices for gasoline, cars, fruits and vegetables.  The textile, agriculture and automotive sectors would be most affected.   After U.S. President Donald Trump took office in January 2017, he tried to replace NAFTA with a new agreement and began negotiations with Canada and Mexico.
In September 2018, the United States, Mexico and Canada reached an agreement to replace NAFTA with the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA), and the three countries had ratified it until March 2020. Nafta remained in effect until the implementation of the USMCA.  In April 2020, Canada and Mexico informed the United States that they were ready to implement the agreement.  The USMCA came into force on July 1, 2020 and replaced NAFTA. Economists generally agreed that the U.S. economy as a whole benefited from NAFTA by increasing trade.   In a 2012 survey by the Global Markets Initiative`s panel of economic experts, 95% of participants said that U.S. citizens benefited on average from NAFTA, while no one said that NAFTA was detrimental to U.S.
citizens on average.  A review of the 2001 Journal of Economic Perspectives showed that NAFTA was a net benefit to the United States.  A 2015 study showed that welfare in the United States increased by 0.08% and intra-block trade in the United States by 41% due to NAFTA tariff reductions.  “The USMCA will provide our workers, farmers, ranchers and businesses with a high-level trade agreement that will lead to freer markets, fairer trade and stronger economic growth in our region. It will strengthen the middle class and create good, well-paying jobs and new opportunities for the nearly half a billion people who call North America home. A Canadian-U.S.